Early Vermont Constitution records now online

first_imgSecretary of State Jim Condos announced today that records relating to the first hundred years of the Vermont Constitution, including proposals of amendments, are now available online at: http://vermont-archives.org/publications/publicat/pdf/Council_of_Censors…(link is external) Some examples are displayed below.Secretary Condos noted, ‘The records of the Vermont Council of Censors, 1777-1870 provide unique insights not only into the evolution of our state constitution but also on persisting issues such as the nature of representation, constitutions, and citizenship.’  The Council of Censors was a constitutional body of thirteen men, elected to one year terms every seven years. It had the authority to review the actions of state government in the preceding seven years to see if they conformed to constitutional requirements.  It also was the sole body that could propose amendments to the constitution. Proposed amendments would then be presented to a constitutional convention for ratification or rejection. The publication of the Council’s records was originally done in 1991 under then Secretary of State Jim Douglas. The Council’s journals were transcribed and annotated by Paul Gillies and Gregory Sanford.  Secretary Condos explained that, ‘Putting Gillies and Sanford’s work online reflects our enhanced opportunities for distributing information through technology.  It is part of my commitment to making public information as broadly available, for free, as we can.’ The Censors successfully proposed two-year terms of office; the creation of a state senate; and their own replacement with the current amendment process, though with a ten-year time lock as opposed to the current four years.  The Council also foreshadowed the current make-up of the House of Representatives when in 1856 it proposed replacing town-representation with a 150 member chamber based on population.  While their proposals failed at the time, their system of proportional representation was essentially adopted in 1965.  The debates surrounding even the Council’s failure are fascinating. The 1869 Council’s debates over extending the vote to women followed along the lines of 20th Century debates over the equal rights amendment. The Council’s proposal in support of women’s suffrage lost in convention 1 to 233. ‘Making records on the evolution of our state constitution widely accessible is important to our civic education, as students and as Vermonters,’ said Condos.  The online presentation is full-text searchable, easing the ability to search issues over time. Source: Secretary of State, December 15, 2011  Selections from the Records of the Council of Censors, 1770-1870 On Women’s Suffrage ‘We believe that woman, married or unmarried, was made to be the companion of man and not his mere servant; that she has the same right to control her property that he has to control his; that she has the same right to aspire to any occupation, profession, or position, the duties of which she is competent to discharge, that he has. A right is worth nothing without the power to protect it. The ballot alone can do this.’                                                                                                                                         July 28, 1869 (p. 642)On the Creation of a Senate ‘With these views, we propose, as a safeguard against hasty and improvident legislation, and to remedy, in some degree, the inequality of representation in the most numerous branch of the legislature, a Senate as a substitute for the present Council. The Senate to consist of thirty members, to be apportioned to the several counties, as near as may be, in the ratio of population–providing however, that each county shall have, at least, one Senator.’                                                                                                                              January 16, 1835 (p. 374)On the Disadvantage of Annual Sessions of the Legislature ‘Your committee are of the opinion that a careful scrutiny of the history of our State Legislature for the past twenty years will show that in most cases our public legislation has been confined to trivial matters, and that no important changes have been made in our laws as often as once in two years, nor indeed for much longer periods. Such scrutiny will also show that in many instances, such changes as have been made, have been had unadvisedly, so that no inconsiderable part of the business has been to undo and repeal what had been so hastily done the year before. In this view your committee are of opinion that we have had too much legislation; that the continual tinkering of the laws, by making amendments one year and repealing them the next, and the numerous minor modifications of our statute which our legislation has produced, have not been profitable to the State.’                                                                                                                                        July 29, 1869 (p. 645) Foreshadowing Current Use In our enquiry, “whether the public taxes have been justly laid and collected in all parts of this commonwealth,” we are of opinion, that the act passed by the legislature in October 1797, laying a tax of one cent per acre, on all lands in this state indiscriminately,” was unequal and unjust. It is a principle universally allowed, that property ought to be taxed in proportion to its real value, and annual income; and though it is impossible by any general rule to do perfect justice, yet the mode that makes the nearest approach thereto is to be preferred. The taxing the wild and uncultivated mountains per acre, equal to the lands of the highest cultivation, or covered with elegant buildings, can bear no proportionate estimate, either in value or income.                                                                                                                                  Feb 4, 1800 (p. 170)On the People’s Role in Amending the Constitution It is evident that the people at the present time take but little interest in amending their Constitution, nor have they since 1850. They have become so indifferent that it is a matter of doubt whether one in ten really knows and understands what our Constitution is, or how it is amended; and the question arises, is it best or expedient to perpetuate and continue a system so little understood, and in which so little interest is manifested? It should be brought home nearer to the people; they should have a direct influence, instead of an indirect and remote one. This is an age of improvement, and a republican government is never wiser nor better, in our State, at least, and at the present time, than the people who elect it; and such a government fails to answer its design when the people become indifferent to its workings. The people of Vermont are at the present time vastly more intelligent, better informed, better educated than formerly, and no good reason exists in the opinion of the minority for not trusting them directly in the final amendments to their Constitution.                                                                                                                            July 31, 1869 (pp. 659-660)On the Purpose of a Constitution ‘Again it is urged that the Council of Censors is a body unknown to sister states, and has arrived at that “respectable old age” in our own that entitles it to funeral honors. We are unable to see any force in this argument. The very soul of an organic law–of a constitution for a commonwealth, is permanency. The people demand some permanent law so that legislatures of partisan bias shall not trample upon the rights of minorities.’    August 3, 1869 (p. 680)last_img read more

Equinor Completes Polish Offshore Wind Trifecta

first_imgNorway’s energy major Equinor has completed the acquisition of a 50 % interest in the offshore wind development project Bałtyk I in Poland from Polenergia.The Bałtyk I offshore location license allows for development of a wind farm with a capacity up to 1560MW of which Equinor will hold 50%. The company will be the manager for the construction preparation and the potential construction and operational phases.Equinor now has an interest in all three Bałtyk offshore wind development projects, MFW Bałtyk III, MFW Bałtyk II, and  MFW Bałtyk I.”The acquisition of Baltyk I strengthens our presence in the Baltic Sea area. With interest in all three – Baltyk I, II and III projects, we have the opportunity to build scale and value in what we see as an important energy region,” said Jens Økland, Senior vice president for business development in New energy solutions in Equinor.Back in 2018 Equinor acquired a 50 % interest in the offshore wind development projects Bałtyk II and Bałtyk III which have a combined planned capacity of 1,440MW.Later that year, Equinor decided to exercise an option to acquire a 50 % interest in the Bałtyk I offshore wind development project, and this transaction is now concluded.The wind farm area is in the Baltic Sea in water depths of 25-35 meters, approximately 80 kilometers from the port of Łeba.“Poland is an important market for Equinor and we are pleased to continue our partnership with Polenergia, which is an experienced energy company with an in-depth knowledge of the Polish energy market,” said Økland.The two companies have a 50/50 joint venture and are working together to mature the Baltyk projects towards construction.Equinor has also welcomed the recent progress in the development of a legal framework for offshore wind in Poland. Clearly defined targets for offshore wind, a robust and predictable framework that sets the right incentives and a streamlined permitting process will be key success factors to develop the offshore wind sector in Poland and to realize the Polish supply chain potential, the company said.last_img read more

‘Football may or may not be coming home’

first_imgThe reality of football maybe not coming home is setting in and it’s not a world I want to live in— beth (@bethpringle_) July 3, 2018 Err not sure footballs coming home lads. Think football’s staying away for awhile & they’ve taken the kids as well #WorldCup— Sara Bea (@TheGrandBiWitch) July 3, 2018 talkSPORT are with listeners all day and all night at this year’s 2018 FIFA World Cup™ with more than 800 hours of World Cup content and all 64 games live across the talkSPORT network. The plane seems to have been delayed, Football may not be coming home.— N🍒 (@muz_nash) July 3, 2018 But with extra-time and possibly penalties looming, some supporters aren’t so sure anymore.Here are some of the best tweets: I’m not saying football’s not coming home I’m just nervous that the flight’s delayed— Samuel Parker, MA (@Parkersnm) July 3, 2018 Not sure what’s coming home… Football or @England? #ENGCOL 🏴󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿— Beunhaas (@RacingBeunhaas) July 3, 2018 Football may or may not be coming home – announcement in near future— Steven Collins (@stecollins7) July 3, 2018 Football was travelling safely home until Yerry Mina popped up in the third minute of stoppage time to equalise for Colombia.England fans were already preparing for the prospect of a quarter-final against Sweden after Harry Kane’s penalty put the Three Lions ahead. 1 The heartbreaking late equaliser last_img read more

Berwick Weighs In On Dispute Over ACO Quality Standards

first_imgAlso, the Medicare Newsgroup reports that industry players are cautiously upbeat about the potential of accountable care organizations to improve quality and lower costs. WBUR: Berwick Weighs In On Despute Over Medical Quality StandardsMedicare’s Pioneer ACOs are arguably leading the most important experiment under the Affordable Care Act. … Berwick, who is also busy helping Britian’s National Health Service recover from an “enormous illness”, offers the Pioneer ACOs some guidance. “As you work through solutions, stay on the high road. And then, try to get to a platform where the discussion is not, will we play or not, but can we work this through at a technical level” (Bebinger, 3/21). The Medicare Newsgroup: Industry Players Express Cautious Optimism on ACO PotentialProviders, researchers and industry stakeholders expressed simultaneous hopefulness and skepticism about whether ACOs will achieve their goal of improving quality while lowering costs, on Wednesday, March 20 at the National Press Club during the free-wheeling discussion held by The Medicare NewsGroup (Rosenblatt, 3/21).In other news related to health care quality – ProPublica: When Harm In The Hospital Follows You HomeA slip of the scalpel, an invisible microbe, a minute miscalculation. It’s estimated that something goes wrong for more than one million people per year during a visit to the hospital. Some patients experience a full physical recovery. Some are never fully healed. but even if patients are lucky enough to physically heal, their lives may never be the same (Pierce, 3/21). This is part of the KHN Morning Briefing, a summary of health policy coverage from major news organizations. Sign up for an email subscription. Berwick Weighs In On Dispute Over ACO Quality Standardslast_img read more