In plate tectonics, continental plates get subducted and melt under pressure. That’s like what happens to geological theories.Read enough geology papers, and you will find old theories constantly being replaced. Classic examples include plate tectonics becoming the new normal after Wegener’s theory had been viciously attacked, and megaflood theory for the Channeled Scablands becoming the new normal after J Harlen Bretz had endured decades of ridicule. Here are some new examples of assumptions gone awry.Dry Glaciers?In Science Daily, we hear that “Glaciers in Mongolia’s Gobi Desert actually shrank during the last ice age.” One would think glaciers grew during an ice age. Geologists assumed they did in Mongolia, but new research suggests that the high deserts of Gobi actually remained dry. They mistakenly applied conditions in the Western hemisphere to those in the far East.On some of the Gobi mountain ranges included in the study, glaciers started growing thousands of years after the last ice age ended. In contrast, in slightly wetter parts of Mongolia the largest glaciers did date from the ice age but reached their maximum lengths tens of thousands of years earlier in the glacial period rather than at its culmination, around 20,000 years ago, when glaciers around most of the planet peaked.The findings reveal that cold alone is not sufficient to form glaciers. “The simple story says that during the last ice age, temperatures were colder and ice sheets expanded around the planet,” this article begins. Actually, what is needed is abundant precipitation, which requires warmer oceans. A doctoral student from the University of Washington has determined that glaciers “actually shrank as cold, dry conditions of the ice age became more intense. Then they grew when the warming climate of the Holocene brought more moist air, feeding the glaciers with more snow.” The moraines that were long thought to represent ice age remnants turned out to be too young by his calculations.Boulder TransportOne would think scientists could find it easy to calculate how much energy is required to move a boulder of a given mass. Accordingly, geologists assumed that only major tsunamis would have the energy needed to move large boulders found on top of some Irish coastlines. Phys.org reports now about “Extraordinary boulder transport by storm waves,” showing they were wrong. Nothing like some eyewitness observations to falsify a theory:It’s not just tsunamis that can change the landscape: storms shifted giant boulders four times the size of a house on the coast of Ireland in the winter of 2013-14, leading researchers to rethink the maximum energy storm waves can have—and the damage they can do….It was previously assumed that only tsunamis could move boulders of the size seen displaced in Ireland, but the new paper provides direct evidence that storm waves can do this kind of work.“Previously assumed” – by whom, you may ask? We need to change the verb from passive to active to reveal the Tontology: assumed by geologists, of course.Extinct LakesAncient shorelines can be seen on the mountains surrounding Death Valley. Photo by David Coppedge.Throughout the western US, there are ancient shorelines of extinct Pleistocene lakes, Death Valley being a classic example, and Great Salt Lake representing a small remnant of ancient Lake Bonneville. The lead author of a new study asks, “Why are there lake systems under both colder and warmer climates, but not today?” Good question. Is it global warming? Astrobiology Magazine puzzles over the question. Simplistic ideas would say that lakes grow during cold, wet periods and shrink during dry periods. Some of them, however thrived in past warming periods. The paradigm “wet gets wetter, dry gets drier” doesn’t fit the evidence.The new models have to explain the presence of large inland lakes during opposite conditions. Why did large inland lakes grow during warm periods? The authors appeal to “El Niño-like” conditions during the mid-Pliocene. The question then becomes, why aren’t we seeing large lakes like those in modern “El Niño-like” periods? A more pertinent question for us might be, ‘How do geologists know what will happen during the global warming predicted for the future?’ After all, those ancient lakes “led many scientists to view the Pliocene as a potential analogue for future climate change,” but the new study apparently “goes against projections of future warming.”Misunderstood StromatolitesThe rounded lumps called stromatolites are up for another case of theory subduction. Living examples in the shallows of Shark’s Bay, Australia, have long provided a model for how fossil stromatolites must have formed. That model held up other theories built on top of it. New Scientist now reports on the discovery of living stromatolites forming in deep water. Colin Barras headlines the finding, “Deep sea discovery suggests world’s oldest fossils misunderstood.”We might need to rethink what we know about the oldest fossils ever found. [Note: Look up Tontology.]Some of the best evidence for early life is provided by structures called stromatolites. Many geologists assume these stromatolites were made by microbes living in shallow, sun-drenched water. This means that life, if it emerged on the deep seafloor as some scientists believe, spread to shallow regions rapidly.A new discovery questions that conclusion. It is a stromatolite that formed recently in the deep, dark water at the bottom of the Arabian Sea.Geological theories resemble their subject matter. Sometimes they are shaken by earthquakes, tsunamis, or changes of climate. Some undergo subduction and melt under heat and pressure.Some of the new findings fit a Biblical flood model comfortably. Flood geologists know the power of moving water, and point to huge boulders in some sedimentary deposits (e.g., the Tapeats sandstone in Grand Canyon) as evidence that high-energy water transport was required, not calm, placid deposition. The stromatolite finding shows that these formations can form more rapidly than expected, not requiring millions of years. The inland lakes speak to remnants of a global flood gradually disappearing by evaporation or by dam breach events. In the uniformitarian scenario, it becomes difficult to explain why there were so many in the past under different climates, but not now. Finally, the post-Flood world accounts for a single ice age because the breakup of the fountains of the great deep would have increased precipitation tremendously by warming the oceans.We all have the same observations, but in the historical sciences, for singular events, one can only present causes sufficient to explain the observations. When modern analogues do appear (such as the boulder transport that was witnessed), paradigms can fall.(Visited 518 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
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Share Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest When Celeste Welty unzips the white, nylon cage, none of the stink bugs inside move.“They’re very tranquil,” she says.Why wouldn’t they be? Inside their cage, they enjoy spa-like conditions with all the sunflower seeds and nuts they can feed on, the warmth of the sunlight coming through the window beside them and a few house plants to make it feel like the outdoors, though they’re in a lab.Young offspring clutch the walls of a separate cage inside what appears to be a refrigerator but instead is a warming chamber.Such special treatment for the brown marmorated stink bug, which farmers despise and homeowners often flick out of the way when they discover them indoors during the cold months.Thriving on a range of fruits and vegetables, the marmorated stink bug has damaged or destroyed enough crops in Ohio and across the United States to get the attention of entomologists nationwide.Welty, an Ohio State University Extension entomologist, is involved in a 15-state study to determine the best, and ideally natural, way to get rid of the marmorated stink bug. The study is one of several being done on stink bugs through Ohio State’s College of Food, Agricultural, and Environmental Sciences.The brown marmorated stink bug is a foreigner to the United States, and in the absence of natural predators here, its populations are exploding, particularly in the mid-Atlantic region. Arriving in the U.S. from China, the grayish brown bug was first detected in Allentown, Pa. in 2001. Six years later, one was reported in Ohio. Known hotspots for the insect in Ohio are Columbus, Cincinnati, Marietta, Dayton and Youngstown.How the first brown marmorated stink bug got to the U.S. is unclear, but often it is carried through boxes or packages, a hitchhiker of sorts, Welty said.“They like to nestle down into protected, narrow spaces, and that’s often present in packing materials,” she said. “That’s why they’re known to go in cargo and hang out.”Three years ago, a grower in eastern Ohio ordered a shipment of snow fencing, the perforated plastic fencing that comes in large rolls. When the grower unrolled the fencing sent from Pennsylvania, he found live stink bugs sprinkled throughout.From Welty’s colony of marmorated stink bugs, she takes the eggs and places them outside the lab on plant leaves. Two days later when she retrieves them, she hopes some have been attacked by the bug’s natural predator, the tiny Trissolcus japonicus wasp. Also a native of China, the wasp was detected in the United States in 2014 and has since been found in eight states but not yet in Ohio. And nowhere in the U.S. is it plentiful — at least not plentiful enough to keep down the marmorated stink bug population.“The wasp appears to be spreading on its own, but it’s so early on in the introduction of the wasp that we really don’t know,” Welty said.Welty and entomologists across the U.S. are hoping to happen upon some T. japonicus wasps in their states.“We’ve known for a number of years now that this one species of wasp would be great to have,” Welty said. “The stink bug is a terrible pest in agricultural crops, and we want to know how to control it with more sustainable methods than just spraying a lot.”A second major stink bug study being done through the college examines the effect of stink bugs on soybeans in Ohio. Entomology Associate Professor Andy Michel is leading the research into the species of stink bugs that prey on soybeans: the green, the brown, the red shouldered and the brown marmorated stink bug.Michel is on the second year of a three-year project funded by the Ohio Soybean Council and the North Central Soybean Research Program to determine what species of stink bugs cause the most damage to soybeans and how prevalent the bugs should be before spraying.Seizing on developing soybean seeds, stink bugs attack the plant using their wide and sharp mouths, which extend to nearly half the length of their bodies.“They pierce through the pod, go on to the seed, then add enzymes and saliva to suck up the nutrients,” Michel said. “In the end, it looks like a shriveled up, brown, discolored seed.”Often this damage is not apparent until harvest, because the pod usually retains its shape, despite the smaller seed. That makes it important to scout early for stink bugs and control them if necessary, Michel said.Drought conditions encourage the spread of stink bugs so unusually dry summers including 2016 and 2012, saw some of the state’s worst infestations, Michel said.In one soybean field, stink bugs caused a 30% yield loss in 2012.Stink bugs of any species can be tricky to spot outdoors. They hide well — stationing themselves on the underside of leaves and the back side of flowers. They’re easy to miss, that is, until they come indoors and drop from a ceiling down onto a table. Try to squish them with your hands and they’ll leave you with a parting gift: a smelly stain on your skin that can’t easily be washed off.“We’re not necessarily looking to defeat the stink bug. I think what we’re looking for is an integrated way to manage the bug. Just because you have stink bugs in your field doesn’t mean you need spray,” Michel said.That’s because stink bugs could develop a resistance to pesticides, some stink bugs don’t cause as much harm to soybeans as others and some species are actually beneficial, being natural enemies of other soybean pests.“We want growers to be able to identify stink bug species and determine when their field is at risk for economic damage,” Michel said, “and therefore when they should start spraying.”
BCCI secretary N Srinivasan will attend the ICC CEC meeting in Hong Kong starting on Sunday.A day before the world gangs up to pressurise the Indian cricket board to accept the contentious umpires’ decision review system (DRS), a top ranking official said on Saturday that India would oppose it again.The official said that the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI) would not succumb to the pressure when the International Cricket Council (ICC) chief executives’ committee (CEC) takes up the issue at the start of the five-day ICC annual conference on Sunday in Hong Kong.”We will oppose the DRS at the meeting. It so happens that we have a bit more influence in the ICC – and we are no more a [British] colony,” the official told Mail Today, referring to several foreigners who hold key positions in the Sharad Pawar-headed ICC. The BCCI has all along maintained that Hawkeye, which tracks the ball for leg-before wicket decisions, is not fool proof. “They [London-based Hawkeye officials] came to India and wanted us to take a leap of faith and accept the DRS; we said we won’t take the leap,” said the official.BCCI secretary N Srinivasan is attending the ICC CEC meeting on Sunday and Monday while president Shashank Manohar will be present at the ICC executive board conclave on Tuesday and Wednesday.The role of umpires will be reduced if the decision review system is made mandatory.DRS, which has been sporadically used worldwide since 2009, can’t be implemented until the boards of the two competing teams of a series agree to it. The BCCI opposed the system for India’s ongoing Test series in the West Indies as well as the series in England starting next month.Interestingly, Sachin Tendulkar is in DRS’s favour while captain Mahendra Singh Dhoni is not.advertisementThe rest of the nine ICC full members, however, have accepted the DRS. The BCCI official suspected that someone in the world body has a vested interest in implementing the DRS. “I have a feeling that someone in the ICC has a link with the company that provides the technology,” he said, and pointed out that the company hardly has any competition globally.The Clive Lloyd-headed ICC cricket committee had last month “unanimously” recommended that the DRS should be used not just in all Test matches, but in One- day Internationals and Twenty20 Internationals as well. Interestingly, the votaries included Gary Kirsten, who guided India to the World Cup triumph in April, and Ravi Shastri, who attended as a media representative.The DRS drastically lessens the role of the on-field umpires, especially with assistance from Hot Spot and Snickometer.It is one of the reasons that the BCCI cites while opposing it. “If you want to reduce the role of umpires, you might as well install a lamppost with red and green lights,” said the official sarcastically.The official said India would oppose the system until it becomes fool-proof. “We will have to navigate through these troubled waters,” he averred.Asked how long he expected the board to do that, he said: “Only time will tell.” Under the DRS, which was controversially implemented during the recent World Cup, each team has two unsuccessful opportunities to ask for a review of the decisions given by on- field umpires. The BCCI is convinced that this too is not fair. “It is a lottery,” he said.The cost of implementing the DRS has to be borne by the home country broadcasters, and this is another reason that the BCCI gives for not embracing the system.Using the DRS, including the Hot Spot and Snickometer aids, for one day cost about $55,000. Can smaller Test playing nations like Bangladesh afford to pay that kind of price? Hot spot also has a security problem in India. Since the technology used in this is perceived as a security threat, it is not allowed inside the country. “Last year, Hot Spot equipment came to India for the Champions League T20, but it couldn’t be used as the government didn’t allow it to come inside the country and it returned from the airport,” said a source.The ICC too faces a few impediments, like the existing broadcast contracts of its member countries, to overcome before it can enforce the DRS across the board. It will have to explore a common ground for the home broadcasters all 10 Test countries to move ahead. But the BCCI will have to be convinced first.
RankCountryGold Silver Bronze Total1China953172USA575173France31374North Korea30145Italy24286South Korea22267Russia20358Kazakhastan20028Japan146118Australia121411Romania120312Brazil111312Hungary111314Netherlands110215Ukraine102316Georgia200116Lithuania100116South Africa100119Columbia020220Great Britain012321Cuba010121Germany010121Mexico010121Poland010121Thailand010121Chinese Taipei010127Azerbaijan001127Belgium001127Canada001127Indonesia001127India001127Moldova001127Mongolia001127Norway001127Serbia001127Slovakia001127Uzbekistan0011
zoom After it terminated an earlier agreement to sell its shares to Navios Maritime Holdings, FSL Trust Management said that the move was made as the proposed transaction “would not be feasible.”The company, a trustee-manager of Singapore-based First Ship Lease Trust, signed a term sheet with Navios in April 2017 to sell 154.4 million shares in FSL Trust, representing around 24.2% of the total number of issued units in FSL Trust, for a total of USD 20 million.FSL Trust said that it was of the view that the proposed transaction would not be feasible and sought to negotiate terms with Navios.As no definitive structure was agreed to, nor definitive documentation executed, prior to the end of the exclusivity period granted under the term sheet, it was automatically terminated in accordance with the terms thereof.The company informed that the termination has no material financial impact on the group as the term sheet was non-binding and no definitive and binding agreement has been entered into between the parties in relation to the transaction.FSL said that it is and will be considering all options available, including any further proposals from Navios, in order to achieve refinancing and ensure “the long-term stability of FSL Trust amid the volatility and reduction in vessel values.”
The Canadian Press CALGARY — A plastic surgeon in Calgary is denying that he was negligent when he operated on former wrestler Bret Hart’s wrist.Hart has filed a lawsuit alleging he lost the use of his right index finger and thumb after the surgery in 2015.The legendary grappler, who was known as The Hitman, filed the lawsuit against Dr. Justin Yeung in November 2017.It says that Hart is unable to use his right hand to pick up and use objects, including pens and utensils, and is unable to properly dress himself without assistance.The lawsuit alleges Yeung failed to advise Hart of the risks involved.Yeung says in a statement of defence that he provided an acceptable level of care during surgery and afterwards.He says Hart was fully aware of the risks.
The Parliamentarian and four others had been arrested for assaulting the individual at the Godakawela town last Sunday. United People’s Freedom Alliance (UPFA) Parliamentarian Ranjith de Zoysa was arrested on the allegation of assaulting an individual.He was produced before the Pelmadulla Magistrate’s Court and remanded till January 1st.
WASHINGTON — The Trump administration is scrapping some rules to make light bulbs more energy efficient, calling the upgrades too costly for consumers.President Donald Trump told reporters Wednesday that the expected saving from the more efficient bulbs “is not worth it.”The Energy Department’s move is a reversal in a years-long push to switch Americans to bulbs that use less electricity.Environmental groups and Democratic lawmakers say the administration’s latest regulation-cutting action is a mistake as the country tries to cut fossil-fuel use.An Energy Department statement says scrapping the efficiency upgrade gives the choice of lighting back to consumers.The Associated Press