first_imgFINN VALLEY COMES DANCING – IN PICTURES! was last modified: March 11th, 2012 by StephenShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window) Tags:finn valleyStrictly Come Dancinglast_img read more

Geology: A Science Where Theories Undergo Subduction

first_imgIn plate tectonics, continental plates get subducted and melt under pressure. That’s like what happens to geological theories.Read enough geology papers, and you will find old theories constantly being replaced. Classic examples include plate tectonics becoming the new normal after Wegener’s theory had been viciously attacked, and megaflood theory for the Channeled Scablands becoming the new normal after J Harlen Bretz had endured decades of ridicule. Here are some new examples of assumptions gone awry.Dry Glaciers?In Science Daily, we hear that “Glaciers in Mongolia’s Gobi Desert actually shrank during the last ice age.” One would think glaciers grew during an ice age. Geologists assumed they did in Mongolia, but new research suggests that the high deserts of Gobi actually remained dry. They mistakenly applied conditions in the Western hemisphere to those in the far East.On some of the Gobi mountain ranges included in the study, glaciers started growing thousands of years after the last ice age ended. In contrast, in slightly wetter parts of Mongolia the largest glaciers did date from the ice age but reached their maximum lengths tens of thousands of years earlier in the glacial period rather than at its culmination, around 20,000 years ago, when glaciers around most of the planet peaked.The findings reveal that cold alone is not sufficient to form glaciers. “The simple story says that during the last ice age, temperatures were colder and ice sheets expanded around the planet,” this article begins. Actually, what is needed is abundant precipitation, which requires warmer oceans. A doctoral student from the University of Washington has determined that glaciers “actually shrank as cold, dry conditions of the ice age became more intense. Then they grew when the warming climate of the Holocene brought more moist air, feeding the glaciers with more snow.” The moraines that were long thought to represent ice age remnants turned out to be too young by his calculations.Boulder TransportOne would think scientists could find it easy to calculate how much energy is required to move a boulder of a given mass. Accordingly, geologists assumed that only major tsunamis would have the energy needed to move large boulders found on top of some Irish coastlines. reports now about “Extraordinary boulder transport by storm waves,” showing they were wrong. Nothing like some eyewitness observations to falsify a theory:It’s not just tsunamis that can change the landscape: storms shifted giant boulders four times the size of a house on the coast of Ireland in the winter of 2013-14, leading researchers to rethink the maximum energy storm waves can have—and the damage they can do….It was previously assumed that only tsunamis could move boulders of the size seen displaced in Ireland, but the new paper provides direct evidence that storm waves can do this kind of work.“Previously assumed” – by whom, you may ask? We need to change the verb from passive to active to reveal the Tontology: assumed by geologists, of course.Extinct LakesAncient shorelines can be seen on the mountains surrounding Death Valley. Photo by David Coppedge.Throughout the western US, there are ancient shorelines of extinct Pleistocene lakes, Death Valley being a classic example, and Great Salt Lake representing a small remnant of ancient Lake Bonneville. The lead author of a new study asks, “Why are there lake systems under both colder and warmer climates, but not today?” Good question. Is it global warming? Astrobiology Magazine puzzles over the question. Simplistic ideas would say that lakes grow during cold, wet periods and shrink during dry periods. Some of them, however thrived in past warming periods. The paradigm “wet gets wetter, dry gets drier” doesn’t fit the evidence.The new models have to explain the presence of large inland lakes during opposite conditions. Why did large inland lakes grow during warm periods? The authors appeal to “El Niño-like” conditions during the mid-Pliocene. The question then becomes, why aren’t we seeing large lakes like those in modern “El Niño-like” periods? A more pertinent question for us might be, ‘How do geologists know what will happen during the global warming predicted for the future?’ After all, those ancient lakes “led many scientists to view the Pliocene as a potential analogue for future climate change,” but the new study apparently “goes against projections of future warming.”Misunderstood StromatolitesThe rounded lumps called stromatolites are up for another case of theory subduction. Living examples in the shallows of Shark’s Bay, Australia, have long provided a model for how fossil stromatolites must have formed. That model held up other theories built on top of it. New Scientist now reports on the discovery of living stromatolites forming in deep water. Colin Barras headlines the finding, “Deep sea discovery suggests world’s oldest fossils misunderstood.”We might need to rethink what we know about the oldest fossils ever found. [Note: Look up Tontology.]Some of the best evidence for early life is provided by structures called stromatolites. Many geologists assume these stromatolites were made by microbes living in shallow, sun-drenched water. This means that life, if it emerged on the deep seafloor as some scientists believe, spread to shallow regions rapidly.A new discovery questions that conclusion. It is a stromatolite that formed recently in the deep, dark water at the bottom of the Arabian Sea.Geological theories resemble their subject matter. Sometimes they are shaken by earthquakes, tsunamis, or changes of climate. Some undergo subduction and melt under heat and pressure.Some of the new findings fit a Biblical flood model comfortably. Flood geologists know the power of moving water, and point to huge boulders in some sedimentary deposits (e.g., the Tapeats sandstone in Grand Canyon) as evidence that high-energy water transport was required, not calm, placid deposition. The stromatolite finding shows that these formations can form more rapidly than expected, not requiring millions of years. The inland lakes speak to remnants of a global flood gradually disappearing by evaporation or by dam breach events. In the uniformitarian scenario, it becomes difficult to explain why there were so many in the past under different climates, but not now. Finally, the post-Flood world accounts for a single ice age because the breakup of the fountains of the great deep would have increased precipitation tremendously by warming the oceans.We all have the same observations, but in the historical sciences, for singular events, one can only present causes sufficient to explain the observations. When modern analogues do appear (such as the boulder transport that was witnessed), paradigms can fall.(Visited 518 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more

Report: PSG 3 Marseille 0

first_imgParis Saint-Germain 3 Marseille 0: Di Maria at the double as holders put Neymar injury aside Nicholas McGee Last updated 1 year ago 06:02 3/1/18 DiMaria-Cropped AFP Hit by the news of Neymar’s impending surgery on Wednesday, PSG cruised into the last four of the Coupe de France by beating Marseille. Paris Saint-Germain put the disappointment of Neymar’s foot surgery to one side to thump rivals Marseille 3-0 and reach the semi-finals of the Coupe de France.The Ligue 1 leaders announced on Wednesday that the world’s most expensive player will miss next week’s second leg of their Champions League last-16 tie with Real Madrid, which they trail 3-1, after the decision was made for him to have surgery on a cracked metatarsal.While Neymar’s prolonged absence may prove fatal to their Champions League hopes, PSG reaffirmed that it will have little impact on their domestic success as Angel Di Maria’s double saw them into a fourth successive Coupe de France semi-final. Article continues below Editors’ Picks Lyon treble & England heartbreak: The full story behind Lucy Bronze’s dramatic 2019 Liverpool v Man City is now the league’s biggest rivalry and the bitterness is growing Megan Rapinoe: Born & brilliant in the U.S.A. A Liverpool legend in the making: Behind Virgil van Dijk’s remarkable rise to world’s best player Di Maria settled the contest with a pair of deflected strikes, the first a vicious shot from outside the box, either side of half-time.Deserved gloss to the scoreline was added courtesy of a wonderful team move finished off by Edinson Cavani, as Marseille again suffered at PSG’s hands having lost by the same scoreline in the weekend’s Ligue 1 meeting, where Neymar suffered his injury.The win keeps PSG firmly on course for a domestic treble and they will be one of just two top-flight teams in the last four after shock triumphs for third-tier Chambly and Les Herbiers, while a free-flowing second-half showing will perhaps give Unai Emery added hope they can fight back against Madrid even without their world-record signing.6 – Angel Di Maria has scored six goals in his last four starts with @PSG_English in all competitions. Revitalized.— OptaJean (@OptaJean) February 28, 2018PSG started very brightly and, after Yuri Berchiche had an effort beaten away by Steve Mandanda, Cavani wasted a gilt-edged chance to give them the lead.The Uruguay international met Di Maria’s pull back after the Argentina winger was sent clear down the left, but he only succeeded in fizzing a shot over the bar.Aymen Abdennour was then fortunate not to concede a penalty when the Marseille centre-back appeared to handle in the area.Most of the pressing was unsurprisingly done by PSG, but Marseille remained dangerous on the counter-attack and Florian Thauvin curled an effort well over the crossbar.Di Maria then showed Thauvin how it should be done as he bent one towards goal from the edge of the area, only to be denied by a brilliant diving save from Mandanda.But Mandanda could not replicate the same heroics on the stroke of half-time, the Marseille goalkeeper beaten as Di Maria unleashed a fierce half-volley that took a slight deflection off Adil Rami and flew into the bottom-left corner.Javier Pastore replaced Kylian Mbappe ahead of the restart and three minutes into the second half Di Maria effectively put the tie to bed – but in far less spectacular fashion.Marseille failed to deal with Yuri’s cross from the left, which eventually fell to Di Maria, and his side-foot effort deflected off Hiroki Saki and under Mandanda.Di Maria then lashed narrowly wide from long range and Julian Draxler went agonisingly close to scoring one of the goals of the season as his bicycle kick from Marco Verratti’s lofted pass was only just off target.A stunning reflex save saw Mandanda keep out Pastore’s diving header, but the final flourish came in style as Draxler nodded a Verratti chip down for Cavani to fire into the bottom-right corner in an illustration of the kind of football they will need to produce to deliver a Champions League turnaround next week.FULL TIME: See you in the @coupedefrance semifinal ! #AllezParis! #PSGOM— PSG English (@PSG_English) February 28, 2018 read morelast_img read more