Volume sensitivity of Vatnajökull Ice Cap, Iceland, to perturbations in equilibrium line altitude

first_imgThe sensitivity of Vatnajökull ice cap, Iceland, to perturbations in equilibrium line altitude (ELA) is analyzed by performing a series of model experiments using a shallow ice approximation (SIA) flow model. For this purpose a simple but realistic parameterization for the mass balance is used that accurately simulates the observed variability in surface mass balance over a period of nine years. We find that because of feedback between mass balance and altitude the ice cap either grows without bounds or settles to steady states depending on whether ELA is larger or smaller than a critical value ELAcrit. The largest modeled steady state is 60% of the current volume of the ice cap. The ice cap, as modeled, is therefore currently not close to a possible stable steady state. Past climate history and spatial and temporal variations in basal condition, such as surges, can be expected to have an influence on the ice cap and have to be taken into account when modeling the response of the ice cap to future climate change scenarios. For the neighboring ice cap, Hofsjökull, the relationship between ELA and volume is, in contrast, found to be simple, and Hofsjökull is close to a stable steady state with respect to the current climatic conditions. Introducing surges, which is not done here, will likely change the details of the ELA-volume relationship of Vatnajökull, presumably by making the relationship between volume and ELA more complex, and possibly less sensitive, as a further nonlinear feature is added to the model.last_img read more

Rising to higher society

first_imgCalibrationAgnieszka MlickaRuskin Sschool of Fine AartNothing in the cultural world polarises opinion so much as the debate over the value of modern art. Iis it a deep and insightful reinterpretation of an artistic tradition or merely pretentiousand posturing? Aagnieszka Mlicka’s exhibition cannot be said to have resolved this apparently unsolvable debate, but her work does provide several interesting perspectives and demonstrates clear potential.The exhibition was staged, aptly enough, at the Ruskin School of Drawing and Fine Aart, whose entry hall provided a fine display space for this small collection of works, although if the artist hopes to find a larger audience a more public and spacious venue may be needed.These works are designed to serve as a distillation of the core of finalist fine-art student Aagnieszka Mlicka’s essential artistic philosophy. This philosophy is expounded from the very beginning of the exhibit in the transparent invitation cards and the montage of transparencies which greet the visitor. These reflect the artist’s avowed interest in layering effects, question reality and meaning, and evoke her fascination with structure which plays a key role in the almost architectural style of some of her works.This style is effectively exploited in order to create feelings of entrapment and social confinement. This is most effectively evoked in her drawing of a female figure, trapped within the intermeshing buildings of a nondescript city, epitomising the confining and enclosing effect of the web of society. Ppowerful as this image is, the image of the social animal as a caged beast is, ironically, something of a tradition in modern art, which perhaps rather undermines the originality. Mlicka’s architectural vision of her art is expanded in her effort to incorporate the fabric of the gallery into her display.Mlicka has also added interest to her work by including the ideas board on which her ideas are born and developed; she thus provides an insight into the artistic process. However the quality of her future exhibits would be much improved by the inclusion of some form of written description or discussion of the artist’s ideas and philosophy. The experience of viewing the display would also be enhanced by an attempt to give an obvious and instructive structure to the arrangementof the pieces.Overall I do feel that despite these minor problems this was a well organised and conceived first event which effectively conveyed the artistic vision. Ssome parts of Mlicka’s exhibit are extremely interesting with great potential and it is to be hoped that with consideration expansion and maturing she will succeed in forging her own unique and dynamic style.ARCHIVE: 6th week MT 2005last_img read more

Hungary first in EU to approve Chinese COVID-19 vaccine

first_imgBUDAPEST, Hungary (AP) — Hungary’s medicine and food safety regulator has approved the Chinese Sinopharm COVID-19 vaccine, making it the first country in the European Union to do so. The decision came after the government streamlined its approval procedure on Thursday to allow any vaccine administered to at least one million people worldwide to be approved for use in Hungary, sidestepping the country’s medicines regulator. In a Friday interview with public radio, Hungary’s prime minister, Viktor Orban, said he would personally choose to be inoculated with the Chinese Sinopharm vaccine.last_img read more

Under 21 Club fixtures

first_imgIn Templederry the Newport Gaels from the North of the county will come up against the Mid Tipperary winners Loughmore-Castleiney.Meanwhile in Leahy Park Cashel, West champions Galtee Rovers/Emly will battle it out with Clonmel Commercials from the South of the county.In the County Under 21 “B” football championship one semi final takes place tonight. Dolla is the venue for the clash of North representatives Portroe and Mid champions Upperchurch-Drombane.All of those games throw in at 7.30.last_img read more

Mike Fiers extends win streak as Athletics top White Sox

first_imgAfter a tumultuous trip to the North Side, the A’s took Game 1 of a three-game series against the Chicago White Sox, winning Friday afternoon’s game 7-0.Mike Fiers added another chapter to a long, dominant stretch. He extended his win streak to nine games, tossing seven shutout innings against the White Sox.His curveball was especially potent, the whiff pitch on three of his eight strikeouts. Chicago’s young star, Tim Anderson, got two of the three hits he allowed.MiKe 🔥#RootedInOakland pic …last_img read more

Shorthanded Warriors fall to Hornets 93-87

first_imgSAN FRANCISCO — The shorthanded Warriors led most of the game before falling to the Charlotte Hornets 93-87 on the second night of a back-to-back set, failing again to earn their first win at Chase Center.In the second game without guard Stephen Curry, who will miss at least months after undergoing left hand surgery, and the first game of several without forward Draymond Green (sprained finger) and guard D’Angelo Russell (ankle), the Warriors (1-5) got a longer look at their young players.Afte …last_img read more