The sensitivity of Vatnajökull ice cap, Iceland, to perturbations in equilibrium line altitude (ELA) is analyzed by performing a series of model experiments using a shallow ice approximation (SIA) flow model. For this purpose a simple but realistic parameterization for the mass balance is used that accurately simulates the observed variability in surface mass balance over a period of nine years. We find that because of feedback between mass balance and altitude the ice cap either grows without bounds or settles to steady states depending on whether ELA is larger or smaller than a critical value ELAcrit. The largest modeled steady state is 60% of the current volume of the ice cap. The ice cap, as modeled, is therefore currently not close to a possible stable steady state. Past climate history and spatial and temporal variations in basal condition, such as surges, can be expected to have an influence on the ice cap and have to be taken into account when modeling the response of the ice cap to future climate change scenarios. For the neighboring ice cap, Hofsjökull, the relationship between ELA and volume is, in contrast, found to be simple, and Hofsjökull is close to a stable steady state with respect to the current climatic conditions. Introducing surges, which is not done here, will likely change the details of the ELA-volume relationship of Vatnajökull, presumably by making the relationship between volume and ELA more complex, and possibly less sensitive, as a further nonlinear feature is added to the model.
Read Full Story The federal Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) has failed to boost the nutritional value of food purchased and consumed by recipients or to improve food security (ensuring participants have food to meet household needs), according to a new study by Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH) researchers. New policies, programs, and nutrition education initiatives are needed to encourage SNAP participants to buy more fruits, vegetables, and other healthier choices instead of choosing less-healthy options such as sugar sweetened beverages, sweets, and highly processed grains, to improve their health and well-being.The study was published online in the November 18, 2013, Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior and will appear in the June/July 2014 print edition.Formerly known as the Food Stamp program, SNAP is designed to provide financial support to low-income people so they can purchase healthier foods. The program costs U.S. taxpayer $80 billion annually and, in 2012, served nearly 45 million people. The benefits can be used to purchase all foods, except alcohol, supplements, and prepared warm foods.
Building a Legacy at the Dell Women’s Entrepreneur Network (DWEN) SummitThis week, we hosted our 9th annual Dell Women’s Entrepreneur Network Summit (DWEN) in Toronto, Canada, bringing together more than 100 women entrepreneurs from 16 countries and 25 industries, the investment community and the next generation of innovators and trailblazers through our Girls Track!Despite the incredible diversity of region and industry represented, one theme remained consistent: these women’s businesses are changing the world.Their companies are pioneering cancer treatment, democratizing 3D printing and launching emergency communications capabilities for use in times of crisis. These examples, along with many more, show the unique power of women entrepreneurs to drive business through purpose – and with a combined revenue of over $4 billion the room, it’s clear that making a positive impact on our local and global communities pays!So why did we bring this powerhouse of a network to Toronto this year? It’s pretty simple. Canada’s vocal and energetic advocacy for gender equality embodies the vision of women entrepreneurs globally. And with the recent focus Prime Minister Trudeau and the government have placed on women entrepreneurs with its four-pillar Women’s Entrepreneurship Strategy, Canada’s record of having women open businesses at higher rates than any other nation seems set to continue.As part of its Women’s Entrepreneurship Strategy, the Canadian government announced just last week that it is now accepting proposals from companies to collect data on how best to support women entrepreneurs. We couldn’t agree more with this collaborative, data-driven approach to accelerate business opportunities for women-founded entities. Data has always been critical in helping us achieve DWEN’s purpose – to enable fast-growing women entrepreneurs by addressing the unique challenges they face including access to capital, technology, networks and expertise to overcome cultural and political barriers.That’s why this year, as an extension of our annual Women Entrepreneur Cities Index (WE Cities) research, we launched new diagnostic tools to ensure policymakers are enabling women entrepreneurs to succeed, specifically around access to capital and leveraging technology to scale. We also developed city-specific blueprints for 10 global cities outlining recommendations for city leaders to improve the local ecosystem for women entrepreneurs.With this shift in research approach, we’re turning analysis into action. We’re taking these tools to policymakers hand-in-hand with our DWEN sisters, as well as on the road through our Dell PolicyHack™ and Women Funding Women events, which convene entrepreneurs, local governments and investors to ignite conversations on how to better enable women entrepreneurs. In fact, our first official stop was the day after DWEN concluded! In Boston, Mass., Howard Elias, President, Dell Services, Digital and IT, joined mayor Marty Walsh for a discussion moderated by the Boston Globe covering recommendations specific to the WE Cities Blueprint for Boston.While our work won’t be done until the playing field is leveled for female and male entrepreneurs, my time at DWEN once again left me feeling incredibly optimistic about the future of business, our communities and our broader society; not least because of how inspiring the next generation of women is, as evidenced by the participants of our Girls Track. We started Girls Track in 2014 to empower girls to confidently transform their ideas and dreams into businesses and realities, and each year I am blown away by the talent, creativity and confidence this group radiates.Couple this with the amazing momentum we’re seeing for women across the world – from the advent of gender-balanced cabinets in government, to 98 percent of the Fortune 500 having women on their boards (an all-time high!), to many countries graduating women from colleges and universities at higher rates than men – and I can honestly say I’ve never felt more positive about the world my daughters are growing up in.Here’s to all the women out there building a legacy that will change the world!
10 Oct 2012 Boy champion Fitzpatrick in England training squad Matthew Fitzpatrick, the British Boys champion, has been named among 15 players to form the England training squad for the 2012 and 2013 coaching programme. Fitzpatrick, 18, has made rapid progress over the past four years, being capped at under 16 and boys levels, and is now on the verge of a full England cap. The full England squad is: Matthew Fitzpatrick (Hallamshire, Yorkshire), Jack Hiluta (Chelmsford, Essex), Craig Hinton (The Oxfordshire, BB&O), Nathan Kimsey (Woodhall Spa, Lincolnshire), Max Orrin (North Foreland, Kent), Garrick Porteous (Bamburgh Castle, Northumberland), Neil Raymond (Corhampton, Hampshire, IoW & CI), Jamie Rutherford (Knebworth, Hertfordshire), Callum Shinkwin (Moor Park, Hertfordshire), Jordan Smith (Bowood G&CC, Wiltshire), Toby Tree (Worthing, Sussex), Josh White (Chipstead). Also part of the squad but at college in the United States: Seb Crookall-Nixon (Workington, Cumbria), Ben Stow (Rushmore, Wiltshire), and Ben Taylor (Walton Heath, Surrey). Ten members of the home-based squad are full internationals while Fitzpatrick and Orrin are boy caps. Fitzpatrick won the British Boys Championship at Notts (Hollinwell) in August and finished third on the Titleist/FootJoy England Golf Boys Order of Merit. His other successes this season include victory in the Selborne Salver, runner-up in the Hampshire Salver and Berkshire Trophy and third in the Carris Trophy. Orrin, 18, has won the Titleist/FootJoy England Golf Boys Order of Merit after a successful season in which he won the Kent Championship and the Malcolm Reid Salver for the best aggregate from the McEvoy and Carris Trophies, finished second in the Darwin Salver, McEvoy Trophy, the Sir Henry Cooper Junior Masters and the Duke of York Young Champions event. Hiluta, 23, is the Spanish Amateur champion, who made his full England debut against France in May, while Hinton, 24, the Welsh Open Stroke Play champion, gained his first full cap in last year’s Home Internationals. Kimsey, 19, a semi-finalist in the English Amateur Championship, debuted in the recent Home Internationals, while Porteous, 22, became a full England cap in last year’s Home Internationals and helped England win the European Challenge Trophy in Iceland in July. Raymond, 26, has been the English Stroke Play champion for the past two years, having made his full England debut against Spain last year, and also represented GB&I in this year’s St Andrews Trophy, while Rutherford, 20, was capped for the first time in the recent Home Internationals having been the Men’s County Champion of Champions in 2011. Shinkwin, 19, the English Boy champion in 2010 when he became a boy international, won all four of his games on his full England debut against France in May while Smith, 19, debuted in the recent Home Internationals having reached the English Amateur semi-finals and been a member of the victorious Wiltshire team in the past two English Men’s County Championships. Tree, 18, was the English under 14 champion in 2008 and has been capped at every level, making his full England debut against France in May. A quarter finalist in this year’s English Amateur, he represented GB&I in the Jacques Leglise Trophy and Europe in the recent Junior Ryder Cup, while White also debuted against France, won the Berkshire Trophy and was joint winner of the West of England Stroke Play. Of the players currently based in America, Crookall-Nixon, 19, was the English under 16 champion in 2008 and 2009 and made his full England debut in this year’s Home Internationals, Stow, 20, made his full England debut in last year’s Home Internationals and was the top individual in the European Challenge Trophy, while Taylor, 20, also debuted in last year’s Home Internationals and represented GB&I in the St Andrews Trophy. There are 13 players in the ‘A’ squad including boy champion Patrick Kelly and Edward Richardson, an England international in 2005 and 2006. The full ‘A’ squad is: Jack Bartlett (Worthing, Sussex), Oliver Carr (Heswall, Cheshire), Harry Casey (Enfield, Middlesex), Joe Dean (Lindrick, Yorkshire), Ryan Evans (Wellingborough, Northamptonshire), Paul Howard (Southport & Ainsdale, Lancashire), Patrick Kelly (Boston West, Lincolnshire), Nick Marsh (Huddersfield, Yorkshire), Edward Richardson (Hemsted Forest, Kent), Michael Saunders (Dartford, Kent), Darren Timms (Mid Kent, Kent), Jerome Titlow (Knole Park, Kent), Dan Wasteney (Bondhay, Yorkshire). Bartlett, 23, has won the Berkhamsted Trophy and the Hampshire Salver this year and was fourth in the Brabazon Trophy, Carr, 19, is an England boy cap who won the South East of England Links Championship this year, while Casey, 19, was English boy champion last year when he also won the Duke of York Young Champions title. Dean, 18, won the Dutch Junior Open this year when representing England Golf, debuted in the Boys Home Internationals and won five of his six games in helping Yorkshire win this year’s Boys County Championship, Evans, 25, won the South of England Amateur, while Howard, 22, is a regular member of the Lancashire county team and played in the recent County Finals at Beau Desert. Kelly, 18, won the English boys title this year after a four hole playoff as well as the Fairhaven Trophy and scored 5½ points from his six games in the Boys Home Internationals, while Marsh, 18, won five of his six games in helping Yorkshire to the County Boys title and was unbeaten in his six games in the Boys Home Internationals. Richardson, 44, has returned to tournament golf this year with considerable success after a long battle with illness. A former Kent champion, this season he has finished runner-up in the Midland Open, third in the Lagonda and Waterford Trophies and fifth in the Berkshire Trophy. His Kent colleague Saunders, 22, won the Lagonda Trophy and finished sixth in the Berkhamsted Trophy, while Timms, 22, another Kent man, won the Lee Westwood Trophy in a playoff, and finished runner-up in the Lagonda Trophy and the BUCS Student Tour Finals. Titlow, 20, finished joint second in the Hampshire Hog, equal fourth in the Waterford Trophy, sixth in the Tillman Trophy, while Wasteney, 20, a former winner of the Yorkshire Open, was an invitee to the 2011/12 England squad and finished equal sixth in the Lagonda Trophy. Image Matthew Fitzpatrick copyright Tom Ward.